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This paper outlines the methods used on the M4 Kinnegad–Enfield–Kilcock scheme to quantify archaeological risk in a Public-Private Partnership (PPP). Furthermore, it will seek to explain the benefit to the relevant stakeholders of quantifying the archaeological risk — namely, the NRA, the relevant local authorities and the consortia tendering or bidding for the PPP contract for the scheme. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) represent a new approach to the construction of motorway schemes. In a PPP scheme the successful tenderer or concessionaire takes on the responsibility for building the road and maintaining it for a specified period, such as 30 years. Part or all of the cost is recouped through the collection of tolls. Unless otherwise provided for, the concessionaire assumes all risks associated with the construction and maintenance of the scheme. As this includes archaeological risk, tenderers for a PPP concession must price this particular risk, which may be defined as the extent to which known and unknown archaeological sites are likely to impact on the construction process. Clearly, tenderers require as much information as possible if they are to submit a bid which is both realistic and competitive.