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Earthsound Archaeological Geophysics were commissioned by Mr. J. O’Sullivan, Project Archaeologist for Galway County Council National Roads Design Office, to carry out a geophysical survey along the route of the proposed N17 Galway to Tuam National Road Scheme, a 26 km long road corridor and additional side roads. Galway County Council required an archaeological geophysical survey of the route, which is proposed to extend from the rural townland of Rathmorrissey – about 4 km west of the town of Athenry, in east County Galway – to the townland of Killeelaun, 1.5 km south-west of the town of Tuam, County Galway. The proposed scheme has a major interchange with the new N6 at Rathmorrissey and another interchange with the existing N63 road to Roscommon at Annagh Hill. The N17 Galway to Tuam National Road scheme occupies a corridor length of 26 km and a typical width of 50 m; the total area of the road improvement will be approximately 100 ha. The survey was undertaken under the Detection Licence Number 06R126. Permission for these works was granted by the Minister for Environment, Heritage & Local Government under Section 14A (2) of the National Monuments Acts 1930 to 2004: that a geophysical assessment is carried out in accordance with Section 3 of the method statement submitted to the Minister. Permission for fieldwork on the land, which is not currently owned by Galway County Council, was sought and given from the landowners and/or their representatives. Galway County Council received requests not to enter land parcels from three landowners at Ch. 1000 (Pollnagroagh Td.), Ch. 1500 (Pollnagroagh Td.), and Ch. 4500 (Ballybackagh Td.). The final 5 km of the proposed scheme between Ch. 20,500-25,440, will be constructed within a deep peat basin. The depth of the peat exceeded the maximum depth of investigation of the geophysical instruments (1.5 m); because of the unfavourable peat deposits Ch. 20,500-25,440 was not assessed via geophysical survey. There are no recorded monuments present within the proposed footprint of the road corridor and the route is not the subject of any legal instruments under the National Monuments Act (1930-94). The geophysical survey forms part of an integrated programme of archaeological assessment. A Cultural Heritage Study was carried out in 2002 by Sheila Lane & Associates, including a desktop study and field inspection. The geophysical survey will provide information on the location and extent of geophysical anomalies which may be of potential archaeological origin. Recommendations will be made concerning the possible use of invasive test trenches, which may be carried out at a future date. The geophysical assessment occurred in two phases using three different instruments. Phase 1, a reconnaissance survey, used a magnetic gradiometer to detect magnetically enhanced deposits (which may include ditches, gullies, pits, kilns, hearths and industrial deposits), along the centreline of the road corridor. Phase 2 expanded upon the reconnaissance survey by examining areas of archaeological potential identified in Phase 1. Additional magnetic gradiometer surveys were also supplemented by earth resistance surveys at selected locations. An earth resistance survey is capable of identifying walls, structures, souterrains, ditches, gullies and pits. Amongst the potential archaeological features are a number of possible walls, ditches, pits, hearths and areas of burning. A small number of potentially significant geophysical anomalies may hint at a series of large archaeological features. At Chainage 500, Field 4, part of a possible circular ditch was identified, which may be associated with a Caher located beyond the road corridor. This could indicate the presence of an enclosing ditch. At Chainage 400, Field 4, a possible ring ditch encircles a large topographical natural mound of rock and earth. This may indicate the presence of a small enclosure. At Chainage 18,200, Field 227, a number of anomalies suggest the presence of up to four possible enclosures. These may be associated with a large enclosure located beyond the road scheme. Areas of possible archaeological interest have been mapped as well as other areas largely free of human intervention. The geophysical surveys along the centreline have examined the potential archaeology of the proposed route, which may enable areas of interest to be studied in further detail at a future date. Primary Archive held by Galway NRDO Secondary Archive held by Earthsound Archaeological Geophysics.