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This paper provides an overview of the archaeological excavations on the N5 Charlestown Bypass in counties Mayo and Roscommon carried out by Richard Gillespie and Agnes Kerrigan, Mayo County Council, on behalf of the council and the National Roads Authority between 2004 and 2006. The Environmental Impact Statement for the scheme identified five Recorded Monuments and Places (RMP), i.e. known archaeological sites with statutory protection, and eight additional areas of archaeological potential for excavation or testing. Test excavations were opened by machine, under archaeological supervision, throughout the footprint of the road scheme, and the groundworks of the main contractor were subsequently monitored when construction of the road got under way. In addition, surveys of vernacular structures and townland boundaries affected by the scheme were also carried out. Thirty-three previously undocumented archaeological sites were identified by testing; one site was identified by monitoring of the excavation of badger sets by the scheme’s consultant ecologist; and six further sites were identified while monitoring the road contractor’s groundworks. These discover ies led to the excavation of archaeological material from the Neolithic, Bronze Age and medieval periods.