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The proposed M7 Portlaoise to Castletown/M8 Portlaoise to Cullahill Motorway Scheme consists of approximately 41km of motorway and 11km of single dual carriageway commencing to the southwest of the existing Portlaoise Bypass and running in a southern direction tying into the existing N8 at Oldtown. A portion of the scheme runs to the west tying into the existing N7 near Borris-in-Ossory. The Archaeological Works contract was subdivided into three separate contracts. Contract 1 extends from the townland of Gortnaclea to Oldtown and consists of approximately 14km of motorway, which extends from Aghaboe to south of Cullahill through the townlands from Gortnaclea to Oldtown. The following report describes the results of archaeological excavation along one section of the planned M8 Portlaoise to Cullahill Motorway Scheme, at Parknahown, County Laois, Contract 1. The site was identified during archaeological testing carried out by Tara O’Neill of Archaeological Consultancy Services Ltd in March–May 2005. Eighteen trenches were excavated within this field and a number of potential archaeological features were identified. The site was designated Parknahown 5. Archaeological resolution of Parknahown 5 commenced on the 4th July 2005 and was carried out by Tara O Neill. For recording purposes the site was designated the scheme no A015/60 and licence E2170. Topsoil stripping on this site revealed a large number of archaeological features including a double ditched enclosure which cut an earlier enclosure, a large burial ground, settlement and ritual evidence in the form of pits and postholes and burnt mound spreads. An Early Bronze Age burnt mound was excavated to the northwestern extent of the site close to the River Goul. This extended beyond the western extent of the roadtake. A simple earth cut trough was exposed beneath the spread. Another concentration of prehistoric activity was exposed towards the southern extent of Parknahown 5. Here a collection of Early and Late Bronze Age pits and postholes were exposed. A number of these features contained burnt Bronze Age lithic material and sherds of Neolithic Grooved Ware. Radiocarbon dates for two of these features produced dates of 1920-1730 BC and 1220-970 BC. Approximately 60% of the Early Medieval enclosure and cemetery site was contained within the roadtake. Finds including a quantity of Neolithic lithics and sherds of Beaker pottery were retrieved from the northern extent of the site suggesting Neolithic and Bronze Age occupation preceeded Early Medieval activity on the site. Early Medieval activity was initially represented by a single enclosure that was subsequently cut by a double ditched enclosure, in an effort to enlarge the site. The double ditched enclosure was sub-circular and enclosed an area measuring 64m in internal diameter. It was disturbed by modern intrusion towards its northwestern extent and discontinued to the north of the site where the original site enclosure remained functional. A small pen-annular enclosure surrounded a cemetery which contained the remains of 425 individuals. This cemetery was located in the interior of the enclosures towards the north of the enclosed area. Only part of this cemetery was located within the roadtake. Burial within the cemetery commenced in the fifth century and continued until the thirteenth century with at least 2 apparently different phases of use. Earlier activity within the cemetery reflects familial burial while later activity could be associated with local community burial in unconsecrated ground with a concentration of infant burials. The majority of the burials were extended inhumations in simple earth-cut graves. Occasionally there was evidence for pillow-stones, ear-muffs and rudimentary stone lining. Finds from the burial ground included copper-alloy ring-pins, bone needles and bone and glass beads, all of which dated to the Early Medieval period. A badly truncated circular slot trench with associated postholes representing a hut was excavated within the interior of the site and the occurance of associated pits and spreads may relate to domestic activity or habitation. Evidence for smithing and smelting in the form of iron slag along with various iron tools were retrieved from the double ditched enclosure suggesting industrial activity took place on the site. A large number of finds were retrieved from this site which reflected the various periods of occupation. Finds from the site included a zoomorphic Anglo–Saxon pen-annular brooch, decorated bone combs, various iron tools, iron slag, glass beads, bone pins and needles, Beaker pottery, Neolithic Grooved Ware and an assemblage of flint representing both the Neolithic and the Bronze Age Periods.