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In the recent past it has often been reported that animal bones are not found in the excavation of burnt mounds/fulachta fiadh. Explanations for this lack of faunal remains have ranged from acid soil (Hedges 1974–5, 42) to scavenging animals (O’Kelly 1954, 141) or to specific functions of these sites that would not have resulted in animal bone waste (Barfield & Hodder 1987, 371). But the stated lack of bones from burnt mounds seems to be, at least to some extent, only partly true. Animal bone finds were reported from a burnt mound in Fahee South, Co. Clare (Ó Drisceoil 1988, 675–7). Since then, animal bones associated with burnt mounds have been recovered during a small number of other excavations (several sites listed in catalogues published in Gowen et al. 2005 and Grogan et al. 2007). The animal bone evidence has not been analysed in detail before, however. The animal bones—both burnt and unburnt—that form the basis of this study were recovered from a number of burnt mounds along the Carlow Bypass section of the N9/N10 Kilcullen–Waterford Scheme: Prumpelstown–Powerstown in counties Carlow and Kildare. The sites were excavated by Headland Archaeology Ltd on behalf of Kildare County Council, Carlow County Council and the National Roads Authority (NRA).