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The proposed M7 Portlaoise to Castletown/M8 Portlaoise to Cullahill Motorway Scheme consists of approximately 41km of motorway and 11km of single dual carriageway commencing to the south-west of the existing Portlaoise Bypass and running in a southern direction tying into the existing N8 at Oldtown. A portion of the scheme runs to the west tying into the existing N7 near Borris-in-Ossory. The Archaeological Works contract is subdivided into three separate contracts. Contract 1 extends from the townland of Gortnaclea to Oldtown and consists of c.4km of motorway, which extends from Aghaboe to south of Cullahill through the townlands from Gortnaclea to Oldtown. The following report describes the results of archaeological excavation along Contract 3 of the planned M7 Portlaoise to Castletown/M8 Portlaoise to Cullahill Motorway Scheme, at Killeany 1, County Laois. Contract 3 consists of c.15km of motorway extending north-south from the termination of the Portlaoise By-Pass to Aghaboe through the townlands from Clonboyne to Gortnaclea. The site was identified during archaeological testing carried out by Ken Wiggins of Archaeological Consultancy Services Ltd in April 2005. Evidence for the remains of the site, principally the outline of a substantial ditch, was uncovered in three fields. The site was designated Killeany 1. This site represents the remains of a sub-circular ditched enclosure, which would have had external dimensions of c.180m x c.150m. The enclosure was established around a low hill roughly 150m northeast of the river Gully. About one-third of the enclosure, comprising most of the southeast quadrant, and limited parts of the southwest and northeast quadrants, was located directly along the proposed line of the new road and was subsequently archaeologically excavated. The remaining two-thirds of the site, located outside the limits of the new road were not investigated, but a geophysical survey of this area is proposed to determine its full extent. The main enclosure ditch (Ditch 1) had an overall excavated length within the landtake of c.185m. It was typically 3m wide by around 1.50m deep. Roughly midway along its excavated length, there was a narrow break in the circuit of the ditch, which represents the entrance to the enclosure. Radiocarbon dating suggests the ditch was dug in the early part of the 7th century AD. It is very likely that clay and stone derived from the digging of the ditch was used to build an earthen bank along the inside edge of the ditch. However, no evidence for the embankment survives today, as it was most likely levelled during the course of agricultural activity at some point long after occupation of the site had ended. A single individual (Burial 68) was interred in the backfill of the ditch close to the entrance of the enclosure at some point between the late 7th and early 9th centuries AD. Such early dating for the infilling of the ditch is a surprise, but it is likely that the integrity of the enclosure embankment was maintained for the duration of occupation at the enclosure, which radiocarbon dating suggests continued until some point between the early 11th and early 13th centuries AD. A relatively small, centrally located inner enclosure occupied the highest point on the site. This area was reserved for burials. Only part of the southeast extent of the burial ground, adjacent to the northern landtake fence, was excavated. The articulated remains of sixty-eight individuals along with ninety-one separate amounts of disarticulated human remains were recorded and carefully removed for study. The individuals were placed in shallow graves aligned northeast/southwest in a manner characteristic of an early medieval cemetery. Although the skeletal remains were generally without grave goods, a young adult female (Burial 1) was buried with a paternoster composing forty-four perforated bone discs, a bone sample from the burial returning a calibrated radiocarbon date of AD 800–1000. A single bone bead, part of a composite gaming piece, was found with the remains of an infant (Burial 19). The burials were enclosed by a relatively small curvilinear ditch (Ditch 2), with an excavated length within the site limits of roughly 35m, and measuring 1m wide x 0.50m deep. A charcoal sample from the fill of the ditch returned a calibrated radiocarbon date of AD 990–1160, but it is likely that the initial digging of the ditch took place much earlier than this. Many of the most significant features are located towards the eastern edge of the enclosure. These include a series of kilns (Kilns 1–6), mostly likely used for cereal drying, including a large, drystone–built example (Kiln 5). Evidence was revealed of a significant phase of activity in the prehistoric period. The curvilinear outline of a shallow slot trench (Structure 1) was located along the western side of Kiln 5, representing the remains of a round house, with another group of features (Structure 2) located to the north of kiln 1. The two structures were probably contemporary with two field ditches (Ditches 3 and 4), which radiocarbon dating suggests date from the mid to late Bronze Age. The characteristics of the site, particularly the series of kilns, together with the nature of the burials, suggest that the Killeany enclosure may represent the remains of a large enclosed early medieval settlement. It is possible that the foundation of the site may date from the 6th century AD. Two of the burials, Burials 36 and 44, both of which truncated underlying interments, are radiocarbon-dated to between the early 5th and the early 7th centuries AD. There appears to have been continuity of settlement over a broad span from then until probably the 12th century AD. This timeframe is broadly consistent with our present understanding of enclosed settlement in the early medieval period. At some later point, the inhabitants became subject to social and political changes that brought about the eventual abandonment of the Killeany enclosure.