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Irish Archaeological Consultancy Ltd (IAC), funded by the National Roads Authority (NRA) through Kilkenny County Council, undertook an excavation at the site of AR144, Tomard Lower 1 along the proposed N9/N10 Kilcullen to Waterford Scheme, Phase 4 – Knocktopher to Powerstown (Figure 1). The following report describes the results of archaeological excavation at that site. The area was fully excavated by Ellen O’ Carroll under Ministerial Direction A032 and Excavation Registration Number E3733 issued by the DOEHLG in consultation with the National Museum of Ireland for IAC. The fieldwork took place between the 6 and 18 October 2007. The site produced evidence of a number of unrelated phases of prehistoric activity. The earliest phase consisted of a single isolated pit, to the north of the site, dating to the late Neolithic/early Bronze Age. At a distance of 17?27m to the east were two further pits, one of which was dated to the early Bronze Age. The relationship, if any, between these two pits (C17 and C26) is not known. In the south-west of the site a cluster of 5 pits was identified. These may represent a temporary structure or waste pits from a temporary campsite. They were dated to the early Bronze Age, and while broadly contemporary with the two other early Bronze Age pits to the north, a direct relationship is unlikely as they are c. 70m away. The final archaeological phase on the site consisted of an early Bronze Age burnt mound with an associated trough and pits, located c. 15m to the north-east of the pit cluster. The trough was probably originally lined, as a number of stakeholes were evident around the perimeter of its base. While dated to the early Bronze Age, the burnt mound is the latest phase of occupation on the site and is not contemporary with any of the other dated activity on the site. Four samples were sent for AMS radiocarbon dating. The results of the analysis dated ash charcoal from the fill C74 of a pit. The 2 sigma calibrated date was 2575?2470BC (UBA 13133). The results of the analysis also dated ash charcoal from the fill C73 of a pit. The 2 sigma calibrated date was 2459–2208BC (UBA 13132). Ash charcoal from the fill C7 of a pit was also analysed. The resulting 2 sigma calibrated date was 2341–2151BC (UBA 13130). The results of the analysis also dated ash charcoal from the fill C5 of a trough. The 2 sigma calibrated date was 2137–1977BC (UBA 13131). The site is of importance at a local level as it represents the first evidence of prehistoric activity in the area, albeit possibly transient and temporary. However, the identification of several phase of activity from the late Neolithic into the early Bronze Age could indicate that a more substantial settlement survives outside the limits of the site. The identification of different phases of activity also indicates a continuity of settlement in this location, which, given its relative proximity to the River Barrow, would probably have been attractive to the prehistoric community. The surrounding landscape also contains marginal areas that were utilized for burnt mound activity. NOTE: WHILE THE GRID REFERENCES IN THE REPORT ARE CORRECT, THE SITE IS IN THE TOWNLAND OF TOMARD UPPER.