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This final report presents the results of archaeological investigations carried out on behalf of Carlow County Council as part of Archaeological Services Contract 4?Resolution, Prumplestown to Powerstown, prior to the commencement of construction on the N9/N10 Kilcullen to Waterford Scheme: Kilcullen to Powerstown. The work was undertaken under National Monuments Section Registration number E2622, in the townland of Ballybar Lower, Co. Carlow. The Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, following consultation with the National Museum of Ireland, directed that Liam Hackett of Headland Archaeology (Ireland) Ltd should proceed with archaeological resolution. A Geophysical greyscale survey of the area was conducted in December, 2002, by Bartlett ? Clark Consultancy on behalf of Valerie J. Keeley Ltd commissioned by Kildare County Council National Road Development Office and Roughan and O?Donovan?Faber Maunsell Alliance (Figure 6). The surveys were carried out at 11 locations along the route that were considered areas of potential archaeological interest. This was based on previous archaeological findings and proximity to nearby monuments. The survey shows a large amount of anomalies, more concentrated toward the western side of the excavation area, which was borne out in the findings of the resolution phase. Contract 3 Pre?Construction Testing under Ministerial Direction number A021/064 on this site in 2005 identified a number of pits, postholes, linear features, furrows, kilns and refuse pits, possibly representing the site of a prehistoric settlement. Full archaeological resolution was conducted on this site between 28 June and 28 July 2006. This revealed cremated human remains, six ?figure?of?eight ?cereal drying kilns, and a large amount of pits and postholes, plus a number of post?medieval features, consisting of furrows, ditches and drains