Total number of assets (1)
This browser does not support viewing this file type. Please download the asset to view.
This report presents the final results of an archaeological excavation undertaken at Camlin 4, Co. Wexford, undertaken on behalf of Wexford County Council. The works were undertaken as part of Stages (iii)?(iv) of the Archaeological Services Contract prior to the commencement of construction of the N25 New Ross Bypass Road Scheme, which extends from Cappagh townland in Co. Kilkenny to Knockroe townland in Co. Wexford. The Minister of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, following consultation with the National Museum of Ireland, issued Directions to Wexford County Council on 30 November 2009 for archaeological works relating to the road development. The registration number, E4101, was allocated by the Department for archaeological excavations at Camlin 4 under the direction of Liam Hackett of Headland Archaeology (Ireland) Ltd. Following a constraint study and a route selection report, an Environmental Impact Study (EIS) was carried out on the preferred route, including chapters on the archaeological and architectural heritage (CRDS Ltd 2007a; 2007b). The EIS included recommendations for test?excavations along the entire route, survey of the townland boundaries and survey of a number of architectural/built heritage sites, which are to be done as part of Stage (i) work. This report presents the results of all these investigations. Archaeological test trenching of the route (including Wetland Test Excavation) was carried out by Headland Archaeology (Ireland) Ltd on behalf of Wexford County Council between 30 November and 18 December 2009 under Excavation Registration Number E4067. Access was not granted forthe section of the route to the west of the River Suir at this time and no archaeological test trenching has been carried out in that area to date. The test excavations at Camlin 4 identified 32 circular charcoal?rich pits, 5 of which contained visible trace of cremated bone (Doyle et al. 2010). Stage (ii) stripping, cleaning and mapping of all areas of archaeological potential identified during test trenching was carried out by Headland Archaeology (Ireland) Ltd on behalf of Wexford County Council between 7 April and 30 April 2010. Stage (ii) works at Camlin 4 identified a further 8 charcoal? rich pits containing traces of cremated bone, an inverted urn burial, isolated pits, a large amount of tree clearance, root burning and modern agricultural furrows. Full archaeological excavation was undertaken at the site between March 4 and March 14 2010; a preliminary report on the results of the excavation was submitted in August 2010. The area of excavation measured 3492 m², revealing a Middle to Late Bronze Age unenclosed cremation cemetery. Additional features excavated at the site included pits, postholes and stakeholes of uncertain date and function. The earliest phase of activity at Camlin 4 was represented by three distinct stages of Middle Bronze Age activity. The first stage comprised a total of two cremation burials, a pit, two postholes and a stakehole. The cremation burials were contained within circular pits. They contained inclusions of charcoal and cremated human bone. Several artefacts were also recovered from these deposits including lithics, groundstone objects and a phyllite bead. The pit was kidney?shaped in plan, with dimensions of 0.58 m by 0.45 m by 0.26 m deep, it was adjacent to the burial pits. The two postholes varied from sub?circular to oval while the stakehole was oval in plan, they were located 5 m – 7 m east of the pits. These features all contained varying quantities of charcoal and small?sized stones within their fills. A deliberately laid, irregularly?shaped spread of silty sand sealed these features, representing the second stage of Middle Bronze Age activity. It measured approximately 16.50 m in length (ENE–WSW), 9.50 m in width and had a varying thickness of between 0.01 m and 0.15 m. It was truncated by numerous features that represented the third stage of Middle Bronze Age activity, as well as a large number that remain undated but must be later than the spread. The third stage of Middle Bronze Age activity consisted of at least four further burials. Two of these were full cremations contained within circular to sub?circular?shaped pits. They contained inclusions of charcoal, cremated human bone and small?sized stones. The remaining two burials represented token deposits, containing a small amount of cremated bone inclusions of charcoal, marine shell and small?sized stones. A stone?lined pit containing the basal portion of an upright Middle Bronze Age domestic bucket? or barrel?shaped pottery vessel can be assigned to this phase also. The second phase of activity at Camlin 4 dated to the Late Bronze Age. It consisted of a single possible token cremation pit located just beyond the southwestern extent of the deliberately laid spread. This feature was sub?circular in plan and contained charcoal, unidentified cremated bone and occasional small?sized stone inclusions. A large number of features excavated at the site remain undated. These include a full cremation and seven token cremation burials as well as five features which included small quantities of unidentifiable burnt bone which are possible token cremations. All but two of these features were cut into the silty sand deposit and so post?date it. Numerous pits and postholes were also excavated, with the majority of these also cut into the deliberately laid spread; this may suggest that they are related to the burial activity, perhaps supporting grave?markers or totems. One of the postholes contained a small mica? schist bead. The remaining features included 14 pits, 10 postholes and two small spreads. The pit fills included charcoal, grains of oat, hulled barley and unidentified cereals, seeds of ribwort plantain, fungal sclerotia and small?sized stones; several lithic and groundstone artefacts were also recovered. The postholes were mainly oval in plan, with average dimensions of 0.33 m by 0.29 m by 0.15 m deep. Inclusions of charcoal and small?sized stones, as well as a mica bead and lithic and groundstone objects, were retrieved from their fills. The two spreads were oval and irregular in plan and contained charcoal and small?sized stone inclusions within the soil matrices. The final phase of activity at the site was modern in date. It was represented by seven WNW–SSE plough furrows and an oval pit.