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Irish Archaeological Consultancy Ltd (IAC), funded by the National Roads Authority (NRA) through Kilkenny County Council, undertook an excavation at the site of AR116, Garryduff 1 along the proposed N9/N10 Kilcullen to Waterford Scheme, Phase 4 – Knocktopher to Powerstown (Figure 1). The following report describes the results of archaeological excavation at that site. The area was fully excavated by Emma Devine under Ministerial Direction A032 and Excavation Registration Number E3852 issued by the DoEHLG in consultation with the National Museum of Ireland for IAC. The fieldwork took place between the 15 January and 11 February 2008. The site was situated on a gentle north-east facing slope of glacial till that leads down to the Monefelim River c. 50m from the main concentration of archaeological features. The river ran northwest-southeast past the site. Multi-phased activity, predominantly relating to the early-middle Bronze Age and the late Bronze Age, was identified on the site. The earliest dated activity was centred on two small cremation pits located in the north-west. The adjacent pits contained quantities of cremated human bone, with both pits potentially containing one adult individual (a possible male in the southern of the two pits, C49, and a possible female in the northern pit, C118). A deposit from one of the pits was radiocarbon dated to the early-middle Bronze Age. The late Bronze Age activity was focussed on two structures. Structure 1 possibly represents a roundhouse defined by a curvilinear arrangement of postholes and stakeholes, some of which were contained within a slot trench. Only evidence for the southern half of the structure was extant and indicated that it was approximately 11m in diameter. A possible concentric internal line of postholes, 8m in diameter, was also recorded. A range of dates from the late Bronze Age and the early and middle Iron Age were recorded from features associated with the structure. It is interpreted that the Iron Age dates possibly relate to some later intrusive activity, particularly as the second structure was also dated as nearly contemporary late Bronze Age. Structure 2 was identified in the south-east of the site and like Structure 1 comprised a curvilinear line of postholes, some within a small slot-trench. It seems that only a quarter of the structure lay within the roadtake so its full dimensions are unclear. On the basis of the excavated section however, it is possible that this structure may have been twice the size of Structure 1 – approximately 22m in diameter. This size would appear too large to be a house or other roofed building so the precise nature and function of Structure 2 is unknown and it may represent a fence or boundary division. Other features were identified across the site, with some being isolated pits or deposits and some being in clusters. A cluster of activity was recorded in the area between the two structure which would seem to be related consisting of a pit, postholes and small deposits. A possible cooking pit was recorded to the north-east of the structures in a somewhat isolated position. Domestic waste in the form of charred hazelnut shells, and small quantities of charred cereals and cremated animal bone were recorded from some of the deposits. Artefacts from the site consisted of two poorly preserved pottery sherds and six fragments that possibly represent vessels of early, middle and final Neolithic date, and a single flint blade also possibly Neolithic in date. These may be derived from disturbed Neolithic contexts, although no definitive Neolithic features were identified on the site. Environmental evidence indicates that the landscape was surrounded by mixed woodlands. Cremated animal bone and some charred seed and hazelnut shell fragments may relate to a domestic activity associated with the structures. A total of five samples were sent for AMS radiocarbon dating. The results of the analysis dated a fragment of cremated human bone from the fill of a cremation pit to 1738–1518BC (UBA 15414). Ash charcoal from the fill of a pit associated with Structure 1 produced a 2 sigma calibrated date of 1258–1024BC (UBA 15412). Willow charcoal from the fill a posthole associated with Structure 2 was dated to 1253–1018BC (UBA 15415). The two remaining dates may relate to intrusive activity and their significance is unclear. Ash charcoal from a pit fill had a 2 sigma calibrated date of 746–400BC (UBA 15416) and hazel charcoal from the fill of a post/stakeholes returned a date of 392–209BC (UBA 15413). The excavation has unearthed evidence of funerary activity in the form of two cremation pits dated to the early-middle Bronze Age and two possible roundhouses dated to the late Bronze Age. Other activity possibly dating to the Neolithic was evident from pottery remains recovered from the site. Two features also yielded Iron Age radiocarbon dates, although it is not clear what the significance of these dates is. Both phases of activity are very important locally as they represent the first prehistoric evidence in Garryduff townland. They have a wider significance as they expand our previously know distribution of Bronze Age sites in north Kilkenny. The two possible roundhouses are of regional significance as there is a relative paucity of excavations relating to roundhouses in the wider area.