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Irish Archaeological Consultancy Ltd (IAC), funded by the National Roads Authority (NRA) through Kilkenny County Council, undertook an excavation at the site of AR118, Kilmacahill 2 along the proposed N9/N10 Kilcullen to Waterford Scheme, Phase 4 – Knocktopher to Powerstown (Figure 1). The following report describes the results of archaeological excavation at that site. The area was fully excavated by Tim Coughlan under Ministerial Direction A032 and Excavation Registration Number E3833 issued by the DOEHLG in consultation with the National Museum of Ireland for IAC. The fieldwork took place between the 1 and 11 February 2008. The site was located in the townland of Kilmacahill, and was initially identified as a possible prehistoric settlement site during testing in April 2007. The main area of archaeology was located in the eastern part of the site and consisted of several groups of postholes and stakeholes, which may represent several temporary prehistoric structures. A further pit was identified at the centre of the site, which contained a significant amount of early Bronze Age pottery. The earliest dated feature on the site consisted of a pit which has been dated to the Neolithic period. It contained no finds. The Neolithic pit may be associated with an undated sub-rectangular possible structure which consisted of six main postholes (Structure 1). A pit dated to the early Bronze Age was recorded in the centre of the excavation, isolated from the main concentration of activity to the east. The pit contained thirteen sherds and two fragments from a vase urn. It is probable, given the pottery assemblage, that this pit represents a disturbed cremation, although no cremated bone was identified within the fill. A cluster of features were identified in the east of the site, in the vicinity of the Neolithic pit and possible Structure 1. These features comprised scatters of postholes, stakeholes and pits, of which only two were dated. Within the scatters some patterns were identified and these have been interpreted as possible structures or fences. A possible north-south fenceline, approximately 7m long consisted of 12 posts/stakeholes. The fill of one of the postholes was dated to the mid-late Bronze Age. To the east of the fence was a cluster of four pits/postholes and three smaller features. One of the pits/postholes was dated to the late Bronze Age. It is not clear how these features related to each other. The remaining features were undated, but two possible structures or groups were identified. Structure 2 consisted of 13 stakeholes arranged in a roughly penannular plan, covering an area of 3m by 3.50m, with the west side largely open. This may have served as a small enclosed area or pen, although it is not felt that it represented a roofed building. Possible Structure 3 was located adjacent to the eastern edge of the excavation and potentially extended beyond the site limits. The exposed area of the possible structure was sub-rectangular, consisting of seven post/stakeholes over an area 4.70m long and 1.5m wide. A possible entrance was marked in the west wall with two additional internal stakeholes. Some other isolated pits and possible postholes were identified on site, but their significance or function is not known, as well as a post-medieval boundary or drain which extended parallel to the modern field boundaries. Four samples were sent for AMS radiocarbon dating. A sample of hazel charcoal from Neolithic pit fill C68 returned a 2 sigma calibrated result of 3643–3523BC (UBA 13117). A sample of hazel charcoal from the fill C11 of the possible cremation pit, which also contained early Bronze Age vase urn sherds, was radiocarbon dated to1898–1752BC (UBA 13118). A sample of prunus sp. charcoal from stakehole fill C32 of the north?south fenceline was radiocarbon dated to 1739–1615BC (UBA 13115). A sample of cherry charcoal from pit/posthole fill C8 was also radiocarbon dated. The 2 sigma calibrated result was 1012–896BC (UBA 13116). The site at Kilmacahill 2 is of significance locally as it provides evidence for occupation of this immediate area at two periods in prehistory. Given the extensive and varied surrounding archaeological landscape, it is possible that the site is of more importance, however, the lack of understanding of the full nature and function of any of the features on the site make any more meaningful interpretation impossible. The excavation results may provide an indication of more substantial prehistoric settlement in the immediate environs, outside the limits of the N9/N10 Phase 4. The identification of early Bronze Age pottery highlights the clustering of activity along this portion of the Barrow Valley, which is of wider significance in terms of the study of the distribution of pottery of the vase tradition.